All shapes can be transformed, i.e. translated to another location, rotated by certain degrees, etc. In all cases, the transform function returns a **new shape**, not the original.

let circleA = circle({radius: 5}) let circleB = circleA.scale([5,10]) // a new cicle, scaled as requested

So, in order to modify the original, place that on the left-hand side of the expression.

let circleA = circle({radius: 5}) circleA = circleA.scale([5,10]) // a new circle, scaled as requested, reassigned to the original

In fact, the two lines above can be combined into a single line.

let circleA = circle({radius: 5}).scale([5,10]) // a new circle, and scaled as requested

Transforms can also be chained together.

// rotate the circle about the X axis by 45 degrees // and translate the circle up the Z axis 10 units // and assign the result to circleB let circleB = circleA.rotateX(45).translate([0,0,10])

The original shape can be transformed any number of times. For example, the same cylinder can be rotated, making copies of the cylinders, and then unioned together. This is a common pattern when creating complex designs.

The standard for all 3D systems today, including graphics cards, design tools, etc. is orientating shapes using the right-hand rule. JSCAD follows the same rules internally, and produces shapes, applies transforms, etc. using the right-hand rule of orientation.

Shapes can be rotated by any given degree about the X, Y, and Z axis. The degrees can be specified as either positive or negative values.

*Learn about rotation at MathIsFun.com*

Defaults:

- degree : 0 or [0,0,0]

let obj = cube([5,20,5]) obj = rotate([90,15,30],obj) obj = rotate(90,[1,0.25,0.5],obj)

The CSG library functions can also be used. *NOTE: Deprecated in the V2 API*

obj.rotateX(90); obj.rotateY(45); obj.rotateZ(30); obj.rotate(rotationCenter, rotationAxis, degrees) obj.rotateEulerAngles(alpha, beta, gamma, position)

Shapes can be scaled by any factor. Shapes are enlarged (increases) or shrunk (diminishes) by a scale factor. The result of scaling is a similar shape (in the geometric sense) to the original.

*Learn about the scaling shapes at Wikipedia.org*

Defaults:

- factor : 1.0 or [1.0,1.0,1.0]

let obj = sphere(5) obj = scale(2,obj) obj = scale([1,2,3],obj)

The CSG library functions can also be used. *NOTE: Deprecated in the V2 API*

obj.scale([1,2,3])

Shapes can be translated (moved) to another location. In other words, every point in the shape is moved by a fixed distance in the same direction. The offset can be positive or negative.

*Learn about translation at MathIsFun.com*

Defaults:

- offset : 0 or [0,0,0]

let obj = sphere(5) obj = translate([0,0,10],obj)

The CSG library functions can also be used. *NOTE: Deprecated in the V2 API*

obj.translate([0,0,10])

Shapes can be centered about the X, Y or Z axis.

*Note: The center of a shape is calculated as the midpoint between minimal and maximum points.*

let obj = sphere(5) obj = center(true,cube(), obj) // center the objects across all axes obj = center([true, true, false], obj) // center the object across only X and Y axis

The CSG library functions can also be used. *NOTE: Deprecated in the V2 API*

cube().center(true) // center the object across all axes cube().center([true,true,false]) // center the object across only X and Y axis

Shapes can reflect about the X, Y, or Z axis.

*Learn about reflection at MathIsFun.com*

Defaults:

- degree : 0 or [0,0,0]

let obj = cube([5, 20, 5]) obj = mirror([10, 20, 90], obj)

The CSG library functions can also be used. *NOTE: Deprecated in the V2 API*

var cube = CSG.cube().translate([1,0,0]) var cube2 = cube.mirroredX() // mirrored in the x=0 plane var cube3 = cube.mirroredY() // mirrored in the y=0 plane var cube4 = cube.mirroredZ() // mirrored in the z=0 plane // create a plane by specifying 3 points: var plane = CSG.Plane.fromPoints([5,0,0], [5, 1, 0], [3, 1, 7]); // and mirror in that plane: var cube5 = cube.mirrored(plane);

The previous transforms are actually simplified versions of matrix mathematics. For example, translate is just applying additition using a matrix.

*Learn about matrix mathematics at MathIsFun.com*

let m = new CSG.Matrix4x4() m = m.multiply(CSG.Matrix4x4.rotationX(40)) m = m.multiply(CSG.Matrix4x4.rotationZ(40)) m = m.multiply(CSG.Matrix4x4.translation([-.5, 0, 0])) m = m.multiply(CSG.Matrix4x4.scaling([1.1, 1.2, 1.3])) // and apply the transform: let cube3 = cube().transform(m)

Shapes can exhibit different colors. And just like the other transformations, adding color to a shape produces a new shape, one with color.

*NOTE: 2D shapes cannot exhibit colors today. This is a known issue.*

let a = color("Red",sphere()) let b = color([1, 0.5, 0.3],sphere()) let c = color([1, 0.5, 0.3, 0.6],sphere(10),cube(20))

See the Extended Color Keywords for all available colors. Color keywords are case-insensitive, e.g. 'RED' is the same as 'red'.

The CSG library functions can also be used. *NOTE: Deprecated in the V2 API*

let a = object.setColor(css2rgb('dodgerblue')) let b = sphere().setColor(1, 0.5, 0.3) let c = sphere().setColor([1, 0.5, 0.3, 0.7])

*Note: There are known issues with transparency, and depending on the order of colors, objects may not seem transparent. Try different 'alpha' values or colors.*

Following functions to convert between color spaces.

let rgb = css2rgb('navy') let rgb = html2rgb('#RRGGBB') let rgb = hsl2rgb(h,s,l) // or hsl2rgb([h,s,l]) let rgb = hsv2rgb(h,s,v) // or hsv2rgb([h,s,v]) let hsv = rgb2hsv(r,g,b) // or rgb2hsv([r,g,b]) let hsl = rgb2hsl(r,g,b) // or rgb2hsl([r,g,b]) let html = rgb2html(r,g,b)

whereas

- r,g,b (red, green, blue)
- h,s,l (hue, saturation, lightness)
- h,s,v (hue, saturation, value)